Charles Natanson, M.D. is a native of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. After receiving a B.A. in history at the University of Wisconsin, Madison in 1972, he matriculated at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, where he received his doctorate of medicine. Following his internship and residency in internal medicine at the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, he trained in anesthesia at the University of California-San Francisco from 1981-84. He has been a senior investigator at the National Institutes of Health since 1983, investigating the pathophysiology and new therapeutic approaches for septic shock. These studies have resulted in over 100 peer- reviewed journal articles and election to the American Society for Clinical Investigation. More recently, over the last 5 years his research has focused on the safety of transfusing stored blood during established infections. During his entire career his publications have also focused on safeguarding patients in clinical trials and doing meta-analysis.