James Downar is a Critical Care and Palliative Care Physician at the University Health Network and Sinai Health System in Toronto, and an Associate Professor in the Department of Medicine at the University of Toronto. He has a Master’s degree in Bioethics from the Joint Centre for Bioethics at the University of Toronto. He is the Program Director for the Subspecialty Residency Program in Palliative Care at the University of Toronto, the co-chair of the Pan-Canadian Palliative Care Research Collaborative, and the chair of the Ethical Affairs committee of the Canadian Critical Care Society. He has authored more than 60 peer-reviewed publications, has been principal investigator on nine peer-reviewed grants, and is an Associated Medical Services Phoenix Fellow for 2016-8. His research interests include communication and decision-making for seriously ill patients and their families; Palliative Care for the Critically Ill; and Palliative Care for Noncancer Illnesses.